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Izinkampani zikaHulumeni: Izintwala ezidla ihlathi lazo

Miningi imibuzo, zehlukene izimpendulo ngokusebenza kwezinkampani zohulumeni. Iqiniso elisobala ukuthi, ziyehluleka ukukhulisa umnotho wamazwe ase-Afrika.

Umlando wamazwe ase-Afrika uyakhombisa ukuthi emuva kokuba ethole inkululeko emazweni abamhlophe, ayenentshisekelo yokhulisa izinga lomnotho. Lena kwakuyinto okwabe kunethemba lokuthi iyokwenza ngcono impilo yabantu bamazwe ayesekhululekile emakhamandeleni abacindezeli. Lokhu kwakulandela ukuthi ohulumeni bamakoloni babungayikhathalele impilo yaboHlanga, kodwa babehambisa phambili izinjongo zokucebesa amazwe abo ngomnotho wamazwe ase-Afrika.

Osomlando bayakuveza ukuthi enye yezindlela okwakucatshangwa ukuthi umnotho ungakhula ngayo ngokusheshayo, kwakuwukuthi uHulumeni afolose phambili ekukhuliseni umnotho ngokusebenzisa inzindlela ezahlukahlukene, okufaka phakathi ukuba nezinkampani zikaHulumeni ezagcina sezibizwa ngokuthi ngamaState Owned Enterprises (SOEs).

Kwakungekho ukungabaza ohulumeni ekubeni nezinkampani zabo ngoba kwakuyibona ababethwele umsebenzi onzima wokukhulisa umnotho baphinde benze inhlalo yabantu ibe ngesimeme nengcono ngokomnotho. ENingizimu Afrika izinkampani zikaHulumeni zaqala ukuba khona ngesikhathi sikaHulumeni wobandlululo, zisetshenziswa ukulwa nokunswinywa kwezomnotho kwaleli lizwe ngamazwe nezinhlangano zomhlaba. Ukufi ka kwenkululeko ngowe-1994 akuziqedanga lezi zinkampani kodwa kwaguqulwa imigomo nezinjongo zokusebeza kwazo. Emveni kukaHulumeni kaMengameli uMbeki, kwakhuliswa ubukhona nokusebenza kwezinkampani zikaHulumeni emnothweni waseNingizimu Afrika. Abanye ababhali nabahlaziyi bathi lokhu kwakuyimizamo yokulandela ezinyathelweni zeChina eyayisikhombise ukudlondlobala kwezomnotho.

INingizimu Afrika yagcina isinenqwaba yezinkampani zikaHulumeni ezifaka phakathi iSouth African Broadcasting Corporation (SABC), iSouth African Airways (SAA), i-Eskom, iDenel neTransnet kwezaziwa kakhulu. Akukho ukuphikisana ngokusungula lezi nkampani kodwa umlando wayizolo nanamuhla uyakhombisa ukuthi ukwehluka kwemibono kusekutheni ingabe izinkampani zohulumeni e-Afrika ziyawukhulisa yini umnotho noma ziyawucwilisa? Ucwaningo ngokomlando, luyakhombisa ukuthi emuva kokuthola inkululeko, amazwe asezwenikazi i-Afrika ehluleka ukukhulisa umnotho wawo kanti nempilo yabantu ayithuthukanga ngendlela egculisayo.

Empeleni ubuphofu basabalala nezikweletu zohulumeni zakhula ngezinga elisabisayo. Okwavela ukuthi izinkampani zohulumeni zazingasebenzi ngendlela enenzuzo, ngakho-ke zazingenalo usizo ekukhuliseni umnotho walelo nalelo lizwe. Okwaba yinkinga kakhulu kwaba ukuthi, lezi zinkampani zazithatha imali eningi kohulumeni kwazanywa ukuthi zisebenze ngendlela enenzuzo kodwa kwabanhlanga zimuka nomoya. Kwathi ngeminyaka ye-1970 kuya kweye-1980 kwaba nenkulumompikiswano kuwo wonke amazwe ase-Afrika yokuthi izinkampani zohulumeni ziwusizo kangakanani ekukhuliseni umnotho wamazwe?

Ubufakazi ngomonakalo

Le mpikiswano yangena kohulumeni yaphinde yangena emanyuvesi lapho oSolwazi nabanye ongoti bavukuza ngokucwaninga umlando wokusebenza komnotho wase-Afrika, ikakhulukazi iqhaza lezinkampani zohulumeni emnothweni. Lolu vukuzo lwaluphinde lube nzima ngokungenelela kwamazwe aphesheya okwakwazeka ukuthi kwakukhona ukungashiyelani ugwayi namanye amazwe ase-Afrika. Iqiniso elavela nelaba ithambo lenyoka kwabanye abaholi bamazwe ase-Afrika kwaba ukuthi izinkampani zohulumeni aziwasizi amazwe ase-Afrika ukukhulisa umnotho wawo kodwa zidla emgodleni ongasetshenziswa ekuthuthukiseni imiphakathi nezwe lonke. Okwaphinde kwabasobala ukuthi alibanga khona izwe lase-Afrika umnotho walo owakhombisa ukusebenza kwezinkampani zohulumeni ngendlela enenzuzo ngokwemali ethuthukisa izwe.

Asiqaphele ukuthi ukuba izinkampani zohulumeni zazihlulelwa ngemithetho yokulunga nangokuzwela, okuwukuthi izinkampani zohulumeni azisebenzisi imgomo yokuqhuba ibhizinisi njengoba injalo kodwa zibhekela abantu, mhlawumpe kwakuyovela isithombe esihle oncwaningweni. Ishwa ukuthi umnotho wanoma yiliphi izwe awukhuli ngemithetho yokulunga nokuzwela. Umlando wezinhlaka zomnotho weNingizimu Afrika, ikakhulukazi umlando wezinkampani zikaHulumeni, umlando uyaziphinda. Njengoba kwenzeka futhi kusenzeka kwamanye amazwe ase-Afrika, naseNingizimu Afrika izintwala zisadla ihlathi lazo. Kunobufakazi obuqanda ikhanda bokuthi izinkampani zikaHulumeni eNingizimu Afrika kusuka ngowe-1994 ziwumthwalo onzima emahlombe kuwona uqobo. Lawa amahlombe abantu baseNingizimu Afrika.

Awanawo amandla uma sibheka ukuthi isimo somnotho ezweni nasemhlabeni wonke siyantengantenga. Lona umthwalo oyoze uthukulule umchilo wesalukazi. Ucwaningo luveza ukuthi ngowezi-2015/16 uHulumeni waseNingizimu Afrika waphoqeleka ukuthi unikeze iziqiniseko zokuthi izinkampani zakhe zizozikhokhela izikweletu zazo zemali eziyizigidi-R487. Lokhu kusho ukuthi lezi zinkampani zase zisezikweletwini zemali ephezulu. Emuva kwalokho, ucwaningo lukhombisa ukuthi izinkampani zikaHulumeni azikwazanga ukwenza inzuzo ekusebenzeni kwazo. Lokhu kuyiqiniso ezinkampanini zikaHulumeni ngokugcwele noma ngokunye noma kancane. Kuthe ngowezi-2018, izinkampani zikaHulumeni kuleli zabhekana nezinkinga ezinkulu zemali.

Uqhubekile ukuphoqeka uHulumeni ukuthi azikhiphe otakwini lezi zinkampani ngokuzinika imali yokuthi zikwazi ukuqhubeka nokusebenza nokuthi zikhokhele izikweletu zazo. Umbuzo uthi, kazi kuyoze kube nini kusetshenziswa imali yabakhokhintela kondliwa ingulube engakhuluphali? Kulezi zinsuku isimo sesisibi kakhulu eNingizimu Afrika njengoba sekuhlongozwa ukuthi kusetshenziswe imali yempesheni yabantu ukuze lezi zinkampani zisebenze. Okucacile eNingizimu Afrika ukuthi izinkampani zikaHulumeni zehlulekile ukuletha izinguquko kwezomnotho, ekukhuphuleni inani lezimboni nokuguqula uhlelo lokungena kwezimpahla ezweni. Umbuzo onqala uthi, yini enza izinkampani zikaHulumeni zehluleke ukwenza umsebenzi ezakhelwa wona? Lo mbuzo uyindida ngoba kuningi ukungavumelani kongoti. Enye impendulo esiyitholayo ithi uhulumeni noma yimuphi akakwazi futhi ngeke akwazi ukuba ngusomabhizinisi kepha okwakhe ukulungisa imithetho yokuqhutshwa komnotho.

Abanye bathi uhulumeni uyokwehluleka njalo ukwenza izinkampani zakhe zisebenze ngendlela enenzuzo ngenxa yenkohlakalo. Le mpendulo ibona uHulumeni eyisidleke senkohlakalo. Miningi imibuzo, zehlukene izimpendulo ngokusebenza kwezinkampani zohulumeni. Iqiniso elisobala ukuthi, ziyehluleka ukukhulisa umnotho wamazwe ase-Afrika. Ngenxa yezifiso zokukhulisa umnotho ngozwelo, amazwe ase-Afrika akuthola kunzima ukwehlukana nokusebenzisa izinkampani zohulumeni emnothweni. Kazi kuyoze kube yinini amazwe ase-Afrika ecwiliswa yizinkampani zohulumeni kodwa siyazi ukuthi umlando uzoqhubeka nokuziphinda.

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