Inkundla Yabantu

Isimo sentsha yaboHlanga kwezomnotho

  Ukuchaza kafushane nje igama elithi

Abasha kumele basukume bazibambele mathupha ukuze kwande ukubandakanyeka kwabo emnothweni wezwe

 

Ukuchaza kafushane nje igama elithi ‘ipolitiki yezomnotho’ lihumusheka ngokuthi uhlobo locwaningo lwezokukhiqiza, ukuhweba nobudlelwano obuhambisana nomthetho, usiko lukaHulumeni, lokhu futhi kube kuhambisana nomqukuthu womnotho wezwe nokwabiwa kwawo. Le ncazelo ivela emibhalweni esuselwe kubabhali nabacwaningi bamaNgisi abafana no-Adam Smith, uThomas Malthus, noDavid Ricardo, okanti bona bandulelwa ngokokucwaninga ababhali bamaFrentshi okungoFrançois Quesnay no-Anne-Robert-Jacques Turgot ababephila cishe eminyakeni kusukela ngowe-1694 kuya kowe-1781 ngokwelakanyana.

Le ngxenye yokuphila kwezwe, ebizwa ngepolitiki yezomnotho ihambisana nokuqonda kabanzi le minxa yokuhweba, umthetho nesiko okumele izinto mazenziwe ngalo emazweni omhlaba ngokwehlukahlukana kwawo. Okungabuye kuphawulwe kabanzi futhi yindlela umnotho osuke uphethwe ngayo ngokwezigaba ezahlukahlukene zezwe, inani lawo kanye nobungako babantu balelozwe.

Le nyanga uNhlangulana esikuyo ngokwekhalenda laseNingizimu Afrika, yinyanga okuthiwa ngeyabasha. Ukukha nje phezulu ngomgubho wale nyanga, kuyaziwa ukuthi isukela onyakeni wezi-1976 lapho abantu abasha bangaleso sikhathi bashaya phansi ngonyawo bethi sekwanele ngengcindezelo nokulawulwa ngolimi lwesiBhunu. Okolimi kwabe kuyisihlonti nje sokususa umlilo wequbula, empeleni into okwabe kuyiyona kanye eyasusa lolu dungunyane, kwabe kungabantu abasha baleso sikhathi ababeqonda ipolitiki, nendlela izimo ezabe zingayo ezweni jikelele kwaboHlanga. Ngesikhathi kwenzeka lesi sigameko, laba bantu abasha babengengakanani ngokwezibalo, kodwa ngenxa yokuzimisela nokuthi babehabulile ngokomlando, nangokwepolitiki baqonda ukuthi sekufike isikhathi sokubasela lo mlilo, maqede ushe ubuhanguhangu, ugqagqamuka unwenwa nezwe lonke. Yize kwabakhona abasha abagcina besala enkundleni, nabanye sebalendulela leli ngenxa yokukhula nezimo zomhlaba, kepha isekhona insali yalabo ababekhona kuleyo minyaka, okungathi abasha banamuhla basizakale nxa befuna ukuntongela eshungwini labo. Njengalokhu isisho sithi; ‘indlela ibuzwa kwabaphambili’, kusengakhona ukucebisana nokwakhana okungaletha ubuhlakani obungasiza ukwakha isizwe.

Kubantu abayizigidi ezingama-57 baseNingizimu Afrika, ngokwemibiko yeStats SA kusuka ngowezi-2010 kuze nganeno, yabika ukuthi bangamaphesenti acishe alinganiselwe kwangama-40 abantu abasha baseNingizimu Afrika. Abantu abasha-ke ngokohlelo lwezwe, abaneminyaka eqala kweli-18 kuya kuma-35. Le ngxenye eningi kangaka yabantu baseNingizimu Afrika, umbuzo uthi ingaki intsha ezibandakanye nokuguqula indlela leli lizwe elilawulwa ngayo kupolitiki yezomnotho. Ukufika kwenkululeko ngowe-1994, kwabaningi abantu kwakungathi izwe selikhululekile impela, kwaze kwaba sekuqala kubonakala ukuthi kusekude phambili nxa kuziwa emnothweni.

Leli lizwe lacishe langena esimweni sokulwa okukhulu phakathi kwabaMhlophe naboHlanga. Kwavimba nokho ukuthi izingxoxo ezabe ziqalwe oMnu uMandela nabanye zabe zikubonile okwakungase kwenzeka ngenxa yokusaba abelungu ababenakho ngenxa yokuhlithwa kweqatha emlonyeni. Yingakho kwangenwa ezivumelwanweni ezinqala ukubavikela, nokuzama ukuletha uzinzo ezweni. Kwaze kwagcina sekuyekelwa okuyiyona nto ngempela eyabe ilwelwa ngama-Afrika, okungumnotho nomhlaba. Kwathi kusenjalo aboHlanga bafunzwa imiqulu eyayingabhalwanga nayibo efana nawoBlack Economic Empowerment (BEE) ukuze isize ukwelusa umqondo idambise nolaka okwakubonakala ukuthi lungase luvuke nxa sekuvuleke amehlo okuthi bawakwa amandla banikezwa ipolitiki efana neqanda lenjelwano.

Yingakho le mitheshwana efana nawoBEE ihambe ilokhu iguquguquka ngenxa yesimomqondo esabe sifakwe kuyo, sokungalethi uzinzo oluyilona okwabe kufanele lulethwe. Akumangalisi nanamuhla aboHlanga besazithola belokhu bengondingasithebeni ezweni lawokhokho babo. Nokho kukhona okuhle okwenzakalayo ikakhulu okuhambisana nemfundo, lapho sibona intsha yaboHlanga ingenisile ezikhungweni zezemfundo ngobuningi. Okufike kudabukise nokho ukuthi ithi isifundile, ilinde ukuthola amathuba emisebenzi angekho nokho. Ukuyikazela nale minyezane nxa beyokwethweswa yona kugcina kudala usizi nakubazali babo abasuke besebenze kanzima bebafundisa ngenxa yokuthi bayazi ukuthi basuke bezohlala emakhaya nala majazi.

Kubantu abalishumi abangaqashiwe cishe abangaphezu kwabahlanu abasha. Ezindaweni zasemalokishini khona kubhujiwe njengoba sazi ukuthi bangaphezu kwamashumi amahlanu amaphesenti abantu abasha abangaqashiwe ngokwemisebenzi.

Yize iningi lalaba bantu esithi ngabasha namuhla babengekho eminyakeni yawo-1976. Abaningi babo bayizizukulwane ezizalwa ngabazali ababesekhaleni lempi laleyo minyaka. Izinselelo nezingqinamba abantu abasha banamuhla ababhekene nazo zehlukile kakhulu kunezaleyo minyaka. Abantu abasha banamuhla babhekene nezinkinga ezimayelana nezidakamizwa, ukungabikho kwemisebenzi eyanele ukuthi baqashwe, ukudlondlobala kwezobuchwepheshe obubonakala buncintisana ngqo nabantu ngokuthathwa kwemisebenzi yenziwa yimishini, ubugebengu obuwumuthelela wezinto eziningi, ukufuduka kwabantu bakwamanye amazwe befudukela ezweni laseNingizimu Afrika ukuze bazocosha amathuba emisebenzi. UHulumeni emazingeni omathathu okubonakala sengathi akanaso isisombululo salezi zinkinga ebe futhi esolwa ngemikhonyovu eminingi yokungaphathi kahle izimali lokhu sikubona kuvela kumakhomishini amaningi, nokunye okuningi.

Isimo sentsha yaboHlanga sidinga bona ngqo aboHlanga ukuthi mabahlangane babonisane ngezindlela okumele mabazithathe ukuze bazikhulise futhi banqande umbhedukazwe ongase udalwe yibo uqobo ngenxa yokunganeliseki ngesimo sezwe.

Okwenziwa ngabasha beminyaka yawo-1976, kwabandakanya ukukhononda okukhulu abakwenza behamba emigwaqeni kuHulumeni wobandlululo kwaze kwabakhona nokusebenzisa izikhwepha lapho babehilikiqa amaphoyisa ngenhlalisuthi bezivikela. Kulesi sikhathi sikaHulumeni okhululekile asisekho isidingo sokwenza izinto ezinjalo, kunalokho, abantu abasha kulindeleke ukuba baphakamise izinga lokucabanga, basebenzise izindlela zalesi sikhathi zobuchwepheshe ukuze bazakhele umnotho kusuka kwintsha ehlala ezindaweni zasemakhaya kuya kweyasemadolobheni ikakhulukazi emalokishini.