Ifagugu

IFAGUGU: Ukuhlangana kwemihlathi eyazanayo

KWENYE yezinkulumo zakhe ezinobuhlakani, uMarcus Garvey

KWENYE yezinkulumo zakhe ezinobuhlakani, uMarcus Garvey uthamundakanje “Uma ufuna ukuqonda inamuhla ukuze uqondise ikusasa, kufanele uqondisise ukuthi akusikhona kuphela okwenziwe abantu abakhulu nokuthi abantu baphile kanjani, kodwa nokuthi wonke umuntu ube naliphi ithemba njengoba kukuningi umuntu akuphilelayo, kanti futhi wonke umuntu unethemba, ziningi izinto abanethemba lokuzenza.

Lelo themba liyincazelo yokwehluka kwesikwenzayo, ikakhulukazi ngoba okwakuphuphwa okhokho kufezeke sebedlulile emhlabeni. Inamhlanje beliyithemba, liwukufi sa liwumcabango kwayizolo. UkuVuselelwa Kobu- Afrika (African Renaissance) kuyilelo themba obabamkhulu abangama-Afrika ababenalo ngabantu kanye nangezwekazi. Umyalezo wokuVuselelwa Kobu-Afrika kuqukethwe kuPan Africanism Movement yeminyaka edlule.”

IPan Africanism isukela ekuhlakazekeni kwabantu lapho amaqoqo abantu abangama- Afrika abaqhamuka ezingxenyeni eziningi zezwekazi bahlangana, futhi abantu abamnyama bamimilita ulimi lomgqilazi futhi ngalokho bakwazi ukusho babuye bazihlelele inkululeko. Inhlangano iPan African iqubuke ngezikhathi ezahlukene, ezindaweni ezahlukene, futhi yagxila ngezindlela ezahlukene. Ngowe-1900 inhlangano iPan African yabeka uvo lwayo kubabusi nasemibusweni engondlovukayiphikiswa kodwa yashaywa indiva; phakathi kowe- 1919 kuya kowe-1927 yacela uzwelo kubantu base-Europe nabase- USA abaphusile emakhanda nasezihlakaniphini; ngowe-1945 yazeneka kubantu base-Afrika ngobuningi babo.

Namhlanje, inxusa wonke umuntu ukuba alwele ukuVuselelwa. Ukufuna ubunye be-Afrika kubukwa ngokwachazwa uNkrumah njengombono wePan Africanist kuqukethwe enkulumweni yakhe edumile yowe-1963: “UBunye Bama-Afrika ngaphezu kwakho konke, umbuso wezepolitiki, bungatholakala kuphela ngezindlela zepolitiki. Intuthuko ye-Afrika kwezenhlalo nakwezomnotho kuzofi ka kuphela sekukhona umbuso wezepolitiki, hhayi ngenye indlela. Akusibo ubunye kuphela okungasihlanganisa sibe nomfutho onomthelela, okwazi ukwakha inqubekelaphambili yethu kanye nokwakha izimiso eziwumnikelo ekuthuleni emhlabeni. Iliphi izwe elizimele e-Afrika, ubani kinina lapha, ongathi isimo sezimali lalo kanye namabhange ahambisana ngokugcwele nokuthuthuka kwalelo lizwe?” kubeka uNkrumah, ngowe-1963.

OwayenguMengameli waseTanzania uJulius Nyerere wakwamukela lokhu ngokugcizelela ubumqoka bobunye be-Afrika. Wacacisa esidlangaleni wathi: “Okwakusemiqondweni yobaba abangabaqambi bendlela kwakuyintshisekelo emsulwa yokuthatha i-Afrika bayise obumbanweni olukhulu. Sikufela amathe ukwehlukaniswa kwezwekazi libe amazwe amancane angenamsebenzi.” kusho uNyerere, ngowe-1997. Ngowe-1992, owayenguNobhala Jikelele we-OAU, uSalim Amhed Salim, wathi: “Ngaphandle kokuhlangana, i-Afrika ngeke kube nje ukukhishwa inyumbazana, izobukwa njengento engenamsebenzi.” ecashunwa embhalweni ka-Oden, 1992:12.

Kufanele kugcizelelwe iphuzu elithi injula yePan Africanism yakhelwe ekukhululekeni, ekuthuthukeni nasenqubekelaphambilini yezizukulwane ze-Afrika okungatholakala kuphela ngobunye babantu.

Umlando woSuku lwe-Afrika

Emva kweMpi YoMhlaba Yesibili, ukulwa nobukoloni ezwenikazi i-Afrika kwaqoqela umfutho ndawonye njengoba ama-Afrika ayeqhubeka elubalela amalungelo amaningi ezepolitiki kanye nenkululeko. Kanti kwezinye izingxenye zezwekazi ukubusa ngobukoloni kwayeka amandla obukoloni ngokungathandi nangokwamagqubu, kwezinye izingxenye ama-Afrika aba nemizabalazo yesikhathi eside belwisana nemibuso yamakoloni anenkani. Ngakho-ke, phakathi kowe-1945 nowe-1965 isibalo esibonakalayo samazwe ase-Afrika sathola inkululeko sigqabula amaketango obukoloni base- Europe.

IGhana kwaba yizwe lokuqala eningizimu yeSahara ukuthola inkululeko mhla ziyisi-6 kuNdasa ngowe-1957. Ukukhululeka kwayo kwafaka ugqozi kwamanye amazwe ase-Afrika elwisana nombuso wamakoloni futhi iGhana yabamba iqhaza ekulwisaneni nokubuswa ngobukoloni.