iBayede Kuleli Sonto

Ezizoba sematheni ezwenikazi i-Afrika nonyaka

Lo nyaka uphinde ubaluleke kumazwe ali-17 ezwenikazi azobe ebungaza iminyaka engama-60 athola inkululeko. Lapha kungabalwa amazwe anjengeCameroon, iTogo, iMadagascar, iDemocratic Republic of Congo (DRC), iBenin, i-Ivory Coast, iCongo Brazzaville, iSenegal, iNigeria, iCAR, iMauritius, iChad, iSomalia, iNiger, okungamanye athola inkululeko ngowe-1960.

Le nkundla ‘yeze-Afrika’ siyivula ngokugqamisa ezamazwe ehlukene nezwekazi lonkana ezizoba sematheni nezizoba yingxenye yezihloko esizozinabela masonto onke nonyaka. Kokuningi okubonakala kuzoba sematheni eyokhetho emazweni ehlukene; imizamo yokufeza izibophezelo zangaphambili zokwakha uxolo ezwenikazi ezenziwa yi-African Union (AU), nokuqhubeka nendlela yokudala i-Afrika ebumbene ikakhulukazi ngakwezomnotho.

Ngakwezomnotho wezwekazi, unyaka owedlule uphele isivumelwano sokusungula i-African Continental Free Trade Area (ACFTA) sesisekwe ngoelethu ngamazwe amaningi. Lokhu kusho ukuthi nonyaka kumele kubhekwe ngabovu imizamo yokuqala izinhlelo zokufeza izinjongo zalesi sivumelwano. Sisekuyo eyomnotho, owedlule uphethe amazwe ayi-8 ayengamakoloni eFrance esevumelene ‘ukuzikhulula’ kwijoka ayethweswe lona lokuthi ingxenye yemali yawo igcinwe eFrance. Kulindeleke ukuba izinyathelo ezizothathwa yila mazwe ezifana nokusungula ibhangengodla, kube ngezinye ezilandelwayo nonyaka.

Ngasohlangothini lwe-AU, amehlo azobe ethe njo eNingizimu Afrika njengoba izothatha isikhundla sokuba nguSihlalo wale Nhlangano ngoNhlolanja. INingizimu Afrika ithatha lesi sikhundla ngonyaka obaluleke kakhulu ku-AU ngoba abaholi bamazwe ase-Afrika babeqoke owezi-2020 njengomqamulajuqu ezimpini ezikhona kuleli zwekazi.

Lo nyaka walesi sibophezelo uqala nje amagalelo okuqeda izimpi zombango nodlame emazweni afana neLibya, iSomalia, iBurkina Faso, iCentral African Republic (CAR), kanye naseMozambique engakaqhamuki nazithelo. Ngaleyo ndlela, kulindeleke ukuba i-AU ngalonyaka ibuyekeze uhambo esiluthathile ekufezeni lesi sibophezelo.

Ezinhlelweni esezimisiwe zokubuyekeza ngalesi sifungo kumele abaholi bamazwe bazibuze ukuthi kungabe benze ngakho yini noma cha, ukuqeda izimpi ezwenikazi. Kulokhu kubuyekeza, nezingxoxo ezizobanjwa ezwenikazi, iNingizimu Afrika njengoSihlalo wonyaka kulindeleke ukuba ibambe iqhaza elikhulu

Kwezepolitiki yokhetho lohulumeni ababalelwa ema-23 amazwe lapho izodlana imilala nonyaka emaqenjini ehlukene ezepolitiki. Kulamazwe kungabalwa iCAR, iBurundi, iGhana, i-Ivory Coast, iTanzania, i-Ethiopia, iNiger, iSudan, iTogo, iSomaliland kanye namanye. Kuwo wonke la mazwe amehlo azobe ethe njo kwathize okunjengeSudan ngenxa yezidubedube zanyakenye ezadala ukuba kuqokwe uHulumeni wesikhashana. Kuzoba yizenzo zikaHulumeni wesikhashana zokudala ukubuyisana eSudan ezizocacisa ukuthi lolukhetho loba khona noma luyahlehliswa. Azophinde abheke kwelase-Ivory Coast kuMfumfu ngenxa yokubaluleka kwaleli lizwe ngakwezomnotho kanye nezepolitiki yamazwe aseNtshonalanga Afrika.

Olwase-Ivory Coast luzodonsa amehlo ngoba loyo owayenguMengameli waphinde wabhekana namacala ku- International Criminal Court (ICC) uMnu Gbagbo, usabuyela ekhaya emveni kokuba atholwa engenacala. Baningi abasamthwele ngeqoma uGbagbo ezweni, okwandisa izinkulumo ezithi angase alungenele lolu khetho. Ngakolunye uhlangothi, i-Ivory Coast izohlelela lolukhetho kuvele kubhekenwe ngeziqu zamehlo phakathi kukaMengameli u-Outtara namaqembu aphikisayo, amusola ngokuthi uzokwenza itulo lokuthi angenele ukhetho okuyinto ephambene noMthethosisekelo.

EGhana ukhetho oluhlelelwe uLwezi noma uZibandlela nalo lungolubalulekile ezwenikazi ngoba ingelinye lamazwe elikhombise ukudlondlobala kwezomnotho nelinokuthula kulesi sifundazwe nasezwenikazi lonkana. Ukhetho lwamalungu ePhalamnde eCameroon luhlelelwe uNhlolanja; emveni kokuba lwahlehliswa ngenxa yodweshu ezweni ngowezi-2018. Noma kubonakala sengathi uHulumeni uzimisele ukuthi lubanjwe lokukhetho kunezinkomba zokuthi lungase luhlehliswe uma isimo sezombangazwe singaguquki ezweni.

Olwase-Ethiopia nalo luzobhekwa ngabovu kuNhlaba ngoba kuzobe kungelokuqala lapho iqembu elibusayo liya okhethweni ngaphansi kwegama elisha. Kuzokhunjulwa ukuthi nyakenke umfelandawonye nokuyiqembu elibusayo i-Ethiopian People’s Revolutionary Democratic Front (EPRDF) yaqoka ukuzisungula kabusha yabe isibizwa ngeProsperity Party (PP). Lolu khetho luzophinde lube yisivivinyo sikaNdunankulu kanye nezinguquko asezidalile ezweni kusukela mhlazane ethatha lesi sikhundla ngowezi-2018.

Elinye elizobhekwa ngabovu elaseBurundi kuNhlaba nalapho kulindeleke ukuba uMengameli Nkurunziza enze njengesifungo asenza sokuthi angeke alungenele ukhetho oluzayo.

Lo nyaka uphinde ubaluleke kumazwe ali-17 ezwenikazi azobe ebungaza iminyaka engama-60 athola inkululeko. Lapha kungabalwa amazwe anjengeCameroon, iTogo, iMadagascar, iDemocratic Republic of Congo (DRC), iBenin, i-Ivory Coast, iCongo Brazzaville, iSenegal, iNigeria, iCAR, iMauritius, iChad, iSomalia, iNiger, okungamanye athola inkululeko ngowe-1960.

Loluhla luqukethe amazwe anjengoCAR, iDRC, kanye neSomalia asabhekene nezankahlu ezahlukene okumele ziphoqe ukuthi imigubho yeminyaka engama-60 athola inkululeko isetshenziselwe ukuqinisa imizamo yokwakha ukuthula nokubuyisana ezweni.

UMnu uSenzo Ngubane, uNgoti kwezocwaningo lokudala ukubuyisana nokuthula ezwenikazi i-Afrika

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