Abesifazane basemakhaya basalwembethe usizi nanamuhla

 

Umhlaba uyaqhubeka nokukhuluma nokuhlela ngabo ngaphandle kweqhaza labo

 

Ungowesifazane wasemakhaya osebenza kusuka liphuma lize liyozilahla kunina, isikhathi esiningi kuze kulamule ukunqundeka kwamehlo. Angaba nebhizinisana noma alime emasimini noma akwenze kokubili enzela ukuba umndeni wakhe ulale udlile. Isikhathi esiningi usisebenzisa ekha amanzi etheza okokubasa, abuye apheke. Ukhulisa izingane. Ubheka imfuyo. Ngaphandle kwamakhosikazi namantombazane basemakhaya imiphakathi yasemakhaya ngeke isimame. Phezu kwakho konke lokhu amakhosikazi namantombazane bangabanye abakhungethwe ububha abangakwazi ukuthola impahlamcebo, imfundo, ukunakekelwa ngokwezempilo nezinye izinsizakalo ezimqoka, futhi yibona abashaywa kakhulu wukuguquguquka kwesimo sezulu. Kulo lonke uhlobo lwentuthuko abesifazane basemakhaya bayacindezeleka kunabesilisa basemakhaya, ngenxa yokungalingani ngokobulili nangokucwaswa.

Lesi yisithombe   sosizi olubhekene nabesifazane ezindaweni zasemakhaya kuleli nasemhlabeni jikelele. Lesi yisimo esingeyona imfihlo kuziphathimandla  nakubashayimthetho emazweni onke. Empeleni miningi imihlangano ebanjwayo ukubheka lesi simo yize eminye isolwa ngokufudumeza okwaziwayo. Maningi amaphepha nemibiko  ethulwayo ngalokho ababhali abangongoti abakuphakamisa njengesixazulululo kulolu sizi. Kepha phezu kwalokho  usizi lwabesifazane emakhaya kalupheli, kunalokho luyanda kanti futhi lusabalalela ezizukulwaneni.

Abaholi bomhlaba ngaphansi kwe-United Nations (UN) kuningi asebekwenzile ukuzama ukuqhamuka nesisombululo. Phakathi kwemihlangano yamazwe ngamazwe kukhona iConvention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women, neBeijing Declaration and Platform for Action. Umqulu wokugcina wezincomo yi-2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, lapho izinhloso zifaka ukulingana ngokobulili kanye nokuqeda ububha nendlala, ukuthola imisebenzi ehloniphekile kuwo wonke umuntu nokulwa nokuguquguquka kwesimo sezulu. Konke kuncike ekuthuthukiseni abesimame namantombazane basemakhaya.

Echaza ngokulumbana phakathi kwamalungelo esintu kanye nalawo abesifazane kanjalo nezingqinamba ezikhona, uNobhala Jikelele we-UN, uMnu u-António Guterres uthi: “Amalungelo abesifazane angamalungelo abantu. Kulezi zikhathi eziphithizelayo njengoba umhlaba wethu ungaqondakali futhi umapeketwane, amalungelo abesifazane ancishisiwe, anqindwa abuye aphendukezelwa. Ukunika abesifazane amandla yiyona ndlela kuphela engavikela amalungelo abo futhi kuqinisekiswe ukuthi bavuleleka kukho konke abanamandla okukwenza,” kuphetha uNobhala Jikelele.

Isimozwe nabesifazane

Ezweni elifana neNingizimu Afrika usizi lwabesifazane ezindaweni zasemakhaya luyinto yansuku zonke. Luyaziwa futhi luqoshiwe.  Ngokwamukela indima ehlakulwe ngabesifazane emzabalazweni waboHlanga naleyo yedemokhrasi kuleli uHulumeni wamemezela uNcwaba kwaba yinyanga yabesifazane, kwathi usuku lwamhla ziyisi-9 kuNcwaba lona lwabekwa njengosuku olubungaza abesifazane. Phezu kwalesi senzo, eminyakeni engama-25 enkululeko izibalo zisasho okunye ngesimo sabesifazane ikakhulukazi aboHlanga nabasemakhaya.  Leli, lingena kuHulumeni wabantu ngowe-1994 izibalo zabahlala emakhaya  noma ezabelweni nakozimelegeqe zabe ziphezulu. Ngonyaka we-1991 amaphesenti angama-64 aboHlanga ayehlala ezindaweni ezabe zihlonzwe ngokuthi ngezasemakhaya nezabe zikhungethwe ngububha nendlala.

Imibiko eminingi  ngobubha nendlala, iqopha okufanayo ngokuthi kusuka ngonyaka we-1994 indlala, ububha nezifo kwabe kudla lubi kwaboHlanga ikakhulukazi labo abahlala ezindaweni zasemakhaya. Umbiko kaStephen Gelb wangowezi-2003 ngokungalingani eNingizimu Afrika ufaka izibalo ezikhombisa lokhu kungalingani ngokwegrafu: izinga lobubha emakhaya aphethwe abesifazane ngowe-1995 lalingama-60%. Ukuswela imisebenzi kwabesifazane ezweni lonke kwakungama-46.4% ngowezi-2001, futhi ezindaweni zasemakhaya kungama-53.6%. Ngowe-1995, abesifazane boHlanga ababesebenza babengama-17% kuphela futhi abangama-9% bezisebenza bona. Amakhosikazi namantombazane babesengcupheni enkulu yesandulelangculaza nengculaza kunamadoda nabafana, abathelelekile abesifazane babengama-12.8% uma kuqhathaniswa nabathelelekile abesilisa ababengama-0.5% ngowezi-2002.

Ngokwemibiko, aboHlanga basemakhaya kabalingani nabesifazane basemadolobheni. Ngowezi -2008, ama-70% abo bonke abesifazane abahlala emakhaya  babehlwempu bekhungethwe wububha nendlala. Lesi sibalo sabe siphakeme uma usilumbanisa nesabesilisa esasingama-55%, singama-42% kwabesifazane basedolobheni kanye nama-30% abesilisa emadolobheni. Ngaphezu kwezinga eliphezulu lobubha, izindawo zasemakhaya azinayo ingqalasizinda nezinsizakalo ezinqala njengasemadolobheni. Abesifazane basemakhaya bazwela kakhulu ngoba babhekene nokukhiqizela imizi izidingonqangi, okufaka nokukha amanzi nokutheza abakwenza nsuku zonke.

Zolo lokhu ngonyaka wezi-2008 umbiko weNIDS wathi kumaphesenti angama-60 abo bonke abesifazane  ezindaweni zasemakhaya abangenawo amanzi ezindlini abahlala ezindaweni eziqhele ngaphezu kwamamitha ali-100 nalapho abangathola khona amanzi futhi abangaphezu kokukodwa kokuthathu baqhele ngaphezu kwamamitha angama-500.   Namuhla lesi sithombe esishaqisayo kasehlukile kangako.

Ukumeleleka

Emphakathini abesifazane bayisisekelo sesakhiwo salowo mphakathi. Ngokomlando abesifazane bangabaxhumanisi abasemqoka ekwakhiweni kwezinhlangano zomphakathi nezombusazwe.  Khona lapho kumqoka ukuqonda ukuthi iqhaza nesikhundla kwabesifazane akuntanti emoyeni njengoba okwenzeka emphakathini nokuzabalaza kwabesifazane kungekho emkhathini. Kokubili kulethwa, kuqiniswe noma kuthintibezwe yintuthuko yomlando wabantu ngokwenhlalo, ngokwezombusazwe nangokwezomnotho.

Ngenxa yalokhu okungenhla kwamukelekile ukuthi izidingo zabesifazane zimeleleke yizinhlaka ezithile okungezepolitiki ngaphansi kophiko lwabesifazne kulelo nalelo qembu noma bakhulunyelwe yizinhlangano ezithi kazikho ngaphansi kukaHulumeni. Ngasohlangothini lukaHulumeni kukhona izinhlaka okuthiwa zimele intuthuko yabesifazane. Kwake kwagqama noMnyango obhekelele abesifazane. Khona lapho ngaphansi kwepolitiki yamaqembu kukhona izinhlaka okuba luphiko olubhekelele abesifazane nokho osekukhona ukukhala ekutheni lezo zinhlaka emaqenjini empeleni azisawunakile umzabalazo wabesifazane, kunalokho abesifazane baphenduka izindibi kwabesilisa abalwayo bebanga izikhundla. Okunye wukuthi lezi zinhlaka ziholwa ngabesifazane abangaxhumene  kahle nalabo basemakhaya. Lokhu kuzwakala olimini lwenqubomgobo esuke ikhulunywa nevame ukuphambana nosiko nempilo yansuku zonke yabesifazane basemakhaya.

Ngakolunye uhlangothi izinhlangano ezizimele zivame ukuba lusizo kepha ukuxhaswa kwazo yizinhlaka noHulumeni bamazwe kwenza kokunye ukusebenza kwazo kushayisane nempilo kanye nokucabanga kwabesifazane abaningi emakhaya. Uma konke lokhu kuliqiniso umbuzo ngothi ngabe uHulumeni kanye nezinhlangano ezizimele zingasho yini ukuthi ezikushoyo ngempela zisuke zikuthathisile kwabesifazane basemakhaya, noma kusuke kuyimicabango nezifiso zabo ngabo (abasemakhaya) nabakwenza ngaphandle kwabo.

Kepha akukubi konke

IZINQUMO ezenziwe nguMengameli uCyril Ramaphosa ngesikhathi ethula iKhabinethi lakhe elisha zabe zinqala futhi kungenzeka ukuthi zisilunguzisa ikusasa. Phezulu eqhulwini kube yisinqumo ngesibalo sabesifazane ebuthweni lakhe (iKhabhinethi) kule minyaka emihlanu.

Isinqumo kube ngesokuqinisekisa ukuthi abesifazane bangamaphesenti angama-50 nokuyisibalo esilingana nesabesilisa  okuqalayo emlandweni. Isinqumo sikaRamaphosa singahle senyuse izibalo ohlwini lwamazwe. Singakaphumi lesi simemezelo iNingizimu Afrika ibikleliswe yaba ngeyeshumi emhlabeni ngabesifazane abangama-42% emazweni amelelwe ngobuningi ngabesifazane. Phezulu eqhulwini yiRwanda namaphesenti ayi-61,3.

Kunamanye amazwe amabili kuphela anabesifazane abaningi kunabesilisa emaPhalamende awo okuyiCuba enabesifazane abangama-53.2% bese kuba yiBolivia ngabangama-53.1%. Isifunda iLatin America and Caribbean (LAC) sinamazwe amane kulawo ayishumi aseqhulwini lapho abesifazane bengama-48,2% eMexico, babengama-46.7% eGrenada, iNicaragua ibe nabangama-45.7% neCosta Rica enabangama-45.6%.

Amazwe amaNordic iwona ahamba phambili ngokumelwa abesifazane ngezihlalo ezingama-42.3% ilandelwe i-USA ngezingama-30.3%, amanye amazwe ase-Europe anezingama-26.5% bese kuba iSub-Saharan Africa nezingama-23.8% kulandele i-Asia ngezingama-19.7% kanti amazwe ama-Arabhu angaphansi kokuvamile ngezingama-18.7%, amazwe asePacific abhuquza phansi ngezingama-15.5%.

Yize abanye bengathi akwenzile bekuyinqubomgomo yenhlangano yakhe nethathe isinqumo sokuthi ezifundazweni uma uNdunankulu kungowesilisa, uSomlomo kube ngowesifazane noma eSigungwini sesifundazwe abesifazane babe ngamaphesenti angama-60 kuthi abesilisa babe ngamaphesenti angama-40 uma uNdunankulu kungowesilisa. Akukho ukungabaza ukuthi kulokhu iNingizimu Afrika ingahle izuze ngesinqumo sakhe.

Kungenzeka lesi senzo singene emlandweni njengesiqalo ekuqinisekiseni ukuthi iNingizimu Afrika eminyakeni nje embalwa iba noMengameli wesifazane.

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