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Impikiswano ngeJazz ijule kakhulu kunokucabanga

nguDEZ KHUMALO

EMASONTWENI amabili edlule iphephandaba laseGoli eliphuma ngeSonto, engosini yalo yezobuciko likhiphe obekungumbono wombhali uMnu uSipho Mabaso. OkaMntungwa ubedlulisa umbono wakhe ngathi kungukuphaphalaza kwezintatheli, ikakhulukazi lezo ezicoshela ezomculo kungaba kuthelevishini noma emaphephandabeni. Isikhalo sakhe esikhulu simayelana nokumataniswa budlabha komunxa iJazz uma kuchazwa iqhaza labaculi asebedlulile emhlabeni.

Ukwenza isibonelo uMabaso ukhulume ngabaculi ababili okunguHugh Masekela odlule emhlabeni ngoMasingana wonyaka owedlule no-Oliver Mtukudzi waseZimbabwe yena odlule ezinyangeni ezimbili ezedlule. Lapho enenkinga khona okaMntungwa yilapho kuthi uma kuchazwa umunxa womculo lezi zingwazi ebezingene zagxila kuwo kuqokwe iJazz. Ngokwakhe laba baculi uMasekela noMtukudzi bebengasondeli nakancane kulolu hlobo lomculo.

UMabaso uqhubekile wabeka okuyimibono yakhe ngezintatheli ezicoshela umculo njengezidukisa umphakathi ngalokhu kuphambanisa nokungawuqondi ngokwanele umunxa weJazz. Kubaculi athe bangathathwa njengababedlala lo mculo ngokuyisibonelo ubale uMackay Davashe noMankunku Winston Ngozi kwabaseNingizimu Afrika, wabala uJohn Coltrane noDizzy Gillespie kwabase-USA okuyilapho lolu hlobo lomculo lugxile khona. Uphinde okaMntungwa wabeka umbono wokuthi uma intatheli yayingakaqali ukuzihlanganisa nalolu hlobo lomculo eminyakeni engama-20 eyedlule ngeke ngempela yakhuluma ngegunya lomuntu owaziyo lo mculo, ingasaphathwa eyokwedlulisela kubantu lolo lwazi lwayo oluncane.

IMBIZA, okuyingosi yezobuciko yephephandaba iBAYEDE ibe isizihlupha ngokuyoncela ulwazi kubantu abathathwa njengabawazi kangcono lo mculo. Lokhu bekungekhona ukuthi umbono kaMabaso ububhekiswe kuleli phephandaba kodwa bekungenxa yokuthi iBAYEDE inomsebenzi wokudlulisela ulwazi kubafundi bayo ikakhulukazi ngoba le mpikiswano ngomculo iJazz ihlala ivuka ezindaweni zobumnandi nalapho kuhlangene khona abazi kangcono ngomculo.

Umbhali wale ngosi ube esexhumana noDkt uThando Ndarana osoPhikweni lweMeteorology eTswane University of Technology. Iminyaka umbhali azana noDkt uNdarana ingaphezulu kwama-20 ewulandela ngokungaphuthi umculo iJazz. UNdarana uzame ukuyixazulula le mpikiswano ngokunamathela kumdlali odume umhlaba wonke kuJazz uMiles Davis. Lokhu kubangelwe wukuthi noMabaso uthe uma esechaza lokho ngokwakhe ukuqonda akubiza ngeJazz wenza isibonelo ngoMiles Davis athi ngokwakhe wagcina ukudlala iJazz yangempela ngonyaka we-1958 kwathi emva kwalokho uMiles waqhela kulolu hlobo lomculo.

UDkt uNdarana uphikisana kakhulu nalo mbono obeka uMiles Davis njengowaba yimbuka emculweni weJazz emuva kowe-1958. Ngokwakhe noma iningi livuma ukuthi uMiles waphuma kuJazz eyejwayelekile kodwa i-albhamu yakhe eyaziwa nge – “Seven Steps to Heaven” yayisekuwo umunxa iJazz yize yaqoshwa emuva kowe-1958 okungunyaka uMabaso awubuka njengowaba ngumnqamulajuqu empilweni kaMiles Davis njengomdlali weJazz.

NgokukaNdarana umbono kaMabaso uwuphikisa ngoba uphambene nokuqhamuka kwemiqondo emisha kwezobuciko. Lokhu yena ukubona kungumgogodla wokuthuthuka kwanoma iyiphi indima yezobuciko. UMiles ugxekwa ngokuletha imiqondo emisha emculweni weJazz. NakuHugh Masekela kunenkinga efanayo. Akuphawuleke ukuthi igama elisetshenziswayo uma kukhulunywa ngoHugh noMiles yilelo le “ciko” hhayi “umculi”. Igama ubu “ciko” lithi ngeke abantu ngenxa yobufishane bokubuka kweso lengqondo yabo balivimbele iciko ekuthuthukiseni lolo hlobo lomculo ngendlela elibuka nelifisa ngayo. Lokhu kusho ukuthi abalaleli beJazz abavule imiqondo, bakhule, njengoba neJazz njengomunxa ikhula iqhubekela phambili. Ngokunjalo futhi nabaculi abavunyelwe ukuba bakhule.

IJazz iwumculo osuthuthuke waqhanyukelwa ngezindlela ezihlukene eminyakeni eminingi ukhona kanti namaciko achithe amahora amaningi elolonga amakhono awo. Isiphetho salokho kuzilolonga esokuthi iciko liphenduka umpetha kwelikwenzayo. Lokhu kungumphumela wokuvuleka komqondo nobuhlakani ngokomphefumulo ethi, “IJazz ngaphandle kweBlues ifana nomzimba ongenamgogodla.” Abaculi baqala ezingxenyeni ezehlukene zalesi sihlahla. Abanye bahlala esiqwini impilo yabo yonke. Eminyakeni yangowe-1940 kuya kowe-1950 kube namagatsha amaningi aqhamuka esiqwini ngezindlela ebezingaziwa kulo mculo iJazz. Emkhakheni wezobuciko ukuqhamuka nokusha kubalulekile.

UMiles Davis ungena emacikweni azamazamise ukucweba kwesiziba ngokuqhamuka nezindlela ebezingaziwa ukuthi zingasebenza kuJazz. Uma kubhekwa uhambo lukaMiles emculweni lwalungenakuphumula kodwa futhi engayishiyile iJazz. Baningi nabanye abaculi abenza njengaye abafana noDon Cherry owayehlanganisa umculo ogxile emasikweni ehlukene noDizzy Gillespie isigqi sakhe esasigxile eCaribbean naseCuba. UJohn Coltrane wayelandela kakhulu umculo wase-India. UMiles Davis yena wahlanganisa umculo ngokwezizukulwane neminxa eyehlukene. Lokhu kumele kutuswe ngoba kuJazz uMiles watholela ikhaya abaculi berock and roll nabehip-hop ababengasoze bangena kuJazz ukube yena akazihluphanga. Abantu banesiphiwo sokuhlanganisa izinto ezingahlobene bazilumbanise zikhiphe into eyodwa njengoba kwenza uMiles Davis babalulekile ekuthuthukiseni ezobuciko. Akufanele bathathwe njengabadayisi.

UDkt uNdarana uphetha ngeseluleko sokuthi abathandi bezobuciko kumele bazame ukukuqonda okwenzekayo emkhakheni wezobuciko ukuthi akukaze kube yiciko elisephutheni, kodwa osephutheni yilowo ozama ukuhumusha umsebenzi weciko, kungakhathalekile ukuthi lona iciko libeke ngayiphi indlela. NakuJazz kunjalo. Akungathi ngoba oMiles nabanye bachezuka kokwejwayelekile baqhamuka nemiqondo emisha, bese ngokungakhuli kwabalaleli beJazz ngesikhathi yona ithuthuka, uMiles bese ebukwa njengembuka. Akakhule umlaleli weJazz, alivumele iciko nomculo walo kukhule. NgokukaDkt uNdarana uMiles Davis, uDizzy Gillespie noDon Cherry nabanye abaningi baba ngabaculi beJazz abangazinikanga mngcele nakuphumula ekuthuthukiseni lo mculo. Kungalesi sizathu bethathwa njengezithixo eziyohlala zisemlandweni weJazz.

UDkt uThando Ndarana yiSenior Lecturer oPhikweni lweMeteorology eTswane University of Technology nomlandeli wokuqina womculo iJazz.

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