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Imibhikisho yoguquko iholwa yizazi kwezemfundo

ngUMOINA SPOONER

IZIFUNDISWA zaseSudan zase-University of Khartoum zazigqamile kwezimbili izidubedube ezibalulekile. Kwakuyi- October Revolution yowe-1964, eyagudluza umbuso wasotsha wokuqala waseSudan ne-April Intifada yowe-1985, eyagudluza owesibili.

Yize abafundi bamanye amanyuvesi ikakhulukazi base- Omdurman Islamic University ngowe-1985 baba neqhaza elibalulekile ekugqugquzeleni imibhikisho kodwa iKhartoum University iyona eyayiyisizinda sokwakha amacebo okuphikisa.

Izidubedube zangowe-1964 nowe-1985 zithathwa njengalezo iSudan eziqhayisa ngazo. Kwakungeyezakhamuzi eyaletha izinguquko zohulumeni wedemokhrasi emva kwesikhashana.

Abaholi bemibhikisho babengakwazi ukuqeda ukungqubuzana osekwenabele eningizimu nezwe -iSouth Sudan. Abakwazanga nokunqanda ukugudluzwa kombuso wedomokhrasi ababewubumbile, uhlaselwa ngamagumgedlela ezempi ngowe-1969 nangowe-1989.

Zazibandakanyeka kanjani nangaziphi izizathu?

INyuvesi iKhartoum eyaqala iyiGordon Memorial College, eyasungulwa ngowe-1902 iqale ukuzihlanganisa nepolitiki ngowe-1964. Lokhu kuze emveni kokuba uhulumeni wathi akube nenkulumo-mpikiswano yezepolitiki neyezemfundo mayelana nokungqubuzana okuqhubekayo eningizimu yezwe.

Abafundisa enyuvesi bagxuma bahlala befuna izinguquko zepolitiki eKhartoum luqobo. Lokhu kwaholela ekutheni uhulumeni ukuvale thaqa lokhu owawukuhlongozile.

Mhla zingama-21 kuMfumfu ngowe-1964, amaphoyisa aphazamisa umhlangano owawubizwe inhlangano yabafundi baseNyuvesi iKhartoum.

Omunye wabafundi u-Ahmad al-Qurayshi, wadutshulwa wafa kulokho kuhilizisana. Abafundisi baseNyuvesi ababethwele uhlaka lwebhokisi lika-al-Qurayshi ababeyingxenye yabazili kwagcina sekuyimashi eybizwa ngokuthi yi- October Revolution.

Emveni kwalokho izifundiswa zabumba inhlangano iProfessional Front, enguyise weSudan Professional Association ekhona namhlanje.

IProfessional Front ikomkhulu layo laliseNyuvesi iKhartoum. Ukusukela lapho yavukuza okwagcina kuyisiteleka esivulekile esagudluza umbuso.

Lwase luvele seluqalile ukhondolo ngowe-1985 lapho izifundiswa zabamba iqhaza elibalulekile ekusungulweni kwe-Union Alliance eyavukuza umphakathi kuphikiswana nombuso kaJafa’ar Nimeiri.

Yimihlangano eyayibanjwa kule Nyuvesi eyenza ukuba izinhlangano zezifundiswa zikwazi ukubumbana zibhekane nohulumeni wondlovukayiphikiswa.

Babe namthelela muni? Njengamalungu eProfessional Front nawe-Union Alliance, izifundiswa zaba nesandla ekugqugquzeleni iziteleka ezagubuqa imibuso yangowe-1964 nowe-1985.

Izifundiswa zazingamalungu embumba yamaqembu ezifundiswa okuyi-United National Front ngowe-1964 neNational Alliance ngowe-1985. Lapha zabamba iqhaza ekuhleleni ukunikezelana kwemibuso. UMuhammad Salih Umar weProfessional Front wayeseqhulwini ngowe-1964 waze waba ngungqongqoshe kuhulumeni wesikhashana.

Ziningi izizathu zokuthi kungani izifundiswa zibe nomthelela.

Esokuqala zaziyingxenye yeqeqebana elalibumbene labakhanyiselwe elalihlala lizibandakanya nezinye izinhlangano zezifundiswa okwakufaka nabasezikhundleni kwezempi. Abanye babeqhamuka maphakathi neSudan. Lokhu kwenza ukuthi bakwazi ukunqoba ukuhlukana kwabo ngokwemicabango kwehlisa nezinga lokuba babhozonyelwe ngumbuso.

Kodwa ukuba mbalwa kwazo ngokwenhlalo kwakubanga ukuthi eminye imibhikisho ingaphumeleli.

Eqinisweni zehluleka ukuxazulula ukuhlukana kwabantu ngokwezindawo, ikakhulukazi labo abamaphakathi, abasentshonalanga nalabo abaseningizimu.

Akusibona bonke ababehlala bezimisele ngokuba nedemokhrasi yamaqembu amaningi emveni kokuzibandakanya ku-Intifadas. Okuqaphelekayo, uHasan al- Turabi, isifundiswa sezomthetho nowayezibandakanya buthule neMuslim Brotherhood, wabamba iqhaza elikhulu ekuhlanganiseni izifundiswa nabafundi ukuba zilwe nombuso wempi ngowe-1964.

Nokho, futhi wayeyishoshozela lokwakhiwa kwezepolitiki nokucabanga kombuso wamaSulumane okukhona manje. Ngakho-ke uyena owenze ukuba uMengameli u-Omar al-Bashir abuse.

Yini iqhaza lazo kumanje? Izifundiswa zaseNyuvesi seziqalile futhi zigqugquzela ukuphikisana nombuso ka-Bashir zibambisene nezinhlangano zezifundiswa. Eziningi zazo ziboshiwe kumanje.

Ngenxa ye-Intifada ekhona manje ihlakazekile ayisefani neyangowe-1964 nangowe-1985, izifundiswa azibambile iqhaza elisemqoka. INyuvesi iKhartoum ilokhu imile ekubeni yisizinda sezinkulumompikiswano mayelana nekusasa lezepolitiki laseSudan.

Kubili osekusungulwe enyuvesi: sekukhona iThe University of Khartoum Lecturers’ Initiative ne- University of Khartoum Initiative.

IThe University of Khartoum Lecturers’ Initiative ifuna uguquko lwezepolitiki masinya. Sekusayine iningi lezifundiswa eziningi zazo ezize zaqhinqa ngaphakathi enyuvesi. I-University of Khartoum Initiative yasungulwa izishoshovu ezilawula iNyuvesi ezaqokwa umbuso kusukela ngowe-1992.

Sebecele ukuba kube nenkulumompikiswano. Lokhu akwethusanga kwamukelwa nguMengameli u-al-Bashir. Kade ayeyifuna lenkulumompikiswano njengesu lokuchezuka.

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